China is regarded by many as a land of mystery. Between its rich culture, unique geography and fascinating history, you could spend a lifetime studying China. We scheduled our unit on China to coincide with the Chinese New Year.
One of the first areas we delved into was China’s writing system. It was fun to study the various kanji, or Chinese symbols, to learn their meanings. With brushes and bamboo pens we practiced making these symbols, combining them to depict various meanings.
We studied several books of Chinese art and crafts and made our own cherry blossom pictures, fans and lanterns. We also began the process of making our own paper.
Each day we have been working on our map of China to include its geographic features, ecological regions and major landmarks.
The waters around China are as significant as the land. We learned about a type of boat, the Chinese junk, and made a model to sail in the creek next to our school. This coincided with a series of experiments and demonstrations we had been conducting on sinking/floating and density.
There are many ways we can talk about how long the Great Wall is. We decided to use our Mortensen rods to help us envision it. We compared the distance to more familiar distances and then calculated how long it would take to walk and drive the length of the wall.
Of course, you cannot study China without encountering one of its most fascinating animals, the giant panda. Known for its reclusive behavior and striking coloration, this cuddly-looking creature spends most of its time foraging for and eating bamboo in the misty mountains of China. We made paper bag pandas while researching this animal and made a chart of its characteristics. The red panda is one of my favorite animals (which I regularly pretend to be when we play imaginary games) and also lives in parts of China. It was the first of the pandas to be discovered, and while it is not related to the giant panda, it also includes bamboo in its diet. We read about how scientists study animals in the wild by tracking them, studying their droppings, and sometimes tagging the animals.
Learning about pandas led us to bamboo. There are a few outcroppings of bamboo growing near our school, so we regularly harvest it for various projects: teepee frames, walking sticks, crutches, utensils. It was interesting to the students to learn that there are several different species of bamboo in China, that humans eat bamboo shoots, and that bamboo is actually a type of grass rather than a tree. One of the students was skeptical of this latter fact, so we spent some time comparing bamboo with different grasses and trees around our school.
We read several books that brought some of China’s history, culture and legends alive.
We celebrated the beginning of the Year of the Dragon over several days. We ate rice with chopsticks, sampled green tea, made dragon masks and burned incense.
Years ago we worked with a student named Alex. One day a delivery truck arrived and parked along the playground fence.
“There’s my name,” said Alex as she pointed to the truck. The outside teacher at the time looked but could not see Alex’s name written anywhere on the truck. Was Alex pulling the teacher’s leg, or did she mistakenly believe that any text he saw represented her name? Rather than correcting Alex, the teacher looked again until suddenly the name appeared: It was a FEDERAL EXPRESS delivery truck. (How long does it take you to see the name?)
Environmental print is often the first text that many children begin to independently read. Without instruction or recitation, children observe the world around them and naturally feel compelled to make sense of the symbols that decorate signs, windows, vehicles, buildings, etc. This curiosity about the meaning of words is latent in all children. Unfortunately, the path to fluency in school all too often becomes increasingly fraught with the pressure of benchmarks and the expectations of anxious adults. The child’s natural desire to understand the meaning of words is eventually supplanted with distaste for the act of reading itself. Learning to read becomes a task to be performed for the satisfaction of adults rather than an adventure of discovery and imagination.
At Progress School, children are not required or pressured to read at any age. It has been our experience that children can and will learn to read for the simple fact that they intrinsically recognize its necessity and value. Even more, in a school where the teachers support the child’s genuine interest in reading without unwanted instruction or adult agendas, a life long love of reading takes root. Children at Progress School learn to read when they are ready so that they are ready to learn whatever they want.
In order to support this process at Progress School, the learning environment is decorated with various types of text. Whether it is wooden signs constructed and hand painted in our woodshop or silly cartoon captions added to the pictures in the building, every opportunity to work with words in a relevant and engaging context is a step further in a child’s road to reading. Teaching moments present themselves where teachers may demonstrate specific letter-sound correspondence, rhymes, or spelling patterns, but the fun and function of words is never sacrificed for a checklist of instruction.
In addition to the signs and labels we create, the school is routinely decorated with educational posters that relate to the current theme of study and various student interests. Whether it is a poster of the parts of an insect body or an inspirational photograph with a poetic caption, the children are surrounded by text for the pleasure of their own curiosity.
The various examples of environmental print found throughout Progress School point the way for each child on their own road to reading. For teachers and other adults, the trust in a child on this journey demands patience and confidence. They are in the driver’s seat and we are the passengers. We know where we are going, but we don’t always know how or when we are going to get there, even with the most detailed of maps. We may look for signs along the way to reassure us that we are not lost, but if we look too hard we may not see the adventure and the beauty of this wonderful journey.
Throughout the year we study indigenous cultures around the world. The fall presents a good time for studying Native Americans since we are already spending more time outside connecting with the natural world. Since our school is located on a large property on a section of Waller Creek, we regularly take short hikes in and around the creek bed. During our study of the native peoples of North America, these hikes took place in the context of foraging, hunting and gathering. We did not actually hunt any wild animals, but we did find and collect many interesting feathers from birds that spend time in the area. As regular birdwatchers, we were able to identify the birds to whom these feathers once belonged.
We have been studying the many types of dwellings erected throughout North America. We decided to erect a teepee from a readily available material that grows on the property, bamboo. We regularly harvest the bamboo for various projects.
We also made plans for a model of a pueblo from sticks and clay, which we will make in the next few days. Our books and posters described various dwellings, from cabins to huts. We discussed the advantages of different types of dwellings depending on location and lifestyle.
We studied many of the crafts made by people in North America and then made our own versions. The students always enjoy working with beads. We talked about the different materials early peoples used for beads, how they made the beads and used them. We contrasted these materials with the types of materials used for beadwork in our society. While the beadwork of most Native American artisans is too complex to produce without years of practice, we were able to make some necklaces and bracelets. Some of the students chose to incorporate patterns into their work. We also made pouches and gods eyes (ojos de dios).
Working with clay is always a good experience for the students. We made platters and engraved designs into the clay while it was soft. While the students worked with the clay, we discussed the many forms of pottery made by different groups and how important it was to their daily activities. In looking at pictures of pottery, we came across many pictures of baskets. A friend of the school donated several boxes of reeds and basket-weaving designs, so we will be learning about basket weaving in the near future.
We studied various pictograms and symbols used by some groups of native peoples. We also made some of our own. We talked about the advantages of communicating ideas through pictures instead of written words, as well as the limitations. We put up large pieces of paper on a wall outside so that we could have lots of room to paint the symbols and pictures.
Between our library and the public library, we amassed quite a collection of books retelling Native American folk tales. These stories have been the best avenue for discussing different native groups, their beliefs, and how they lived prior to European contact. The idea of “animal people”, present in most of the stories, resonated with the students. Coyote, a central character in the stories of the Southwest tribes, was probably our favorite.
Tomorrow we will be taking a trip out to McKinney Falls State Park to spend the day hiking. It will be a wonderful opportunity to spend even more time outside, connecting with the natural world. And next week, before leaving for our Thanksgiving break, we will be cooking a soup with ingredients native to this continent: beans, squash, corn (known to some groups of Native Americans as the three sisters) and tomatoes.
After such a long hot summer, it is wonderful to feel the cooler fall weather. We have been spending even more time outside, playing, exploring and observing the natural world around us. We’ve been taking projects and books outside. The cooler weather has provided opportunities to take longer walks and hikes. We have been on excursions to Shipe Park and the Elizabet Ney Museum.
The cooler weather is a relief to the plants as well. Our garden is showing signs of growth. We have sprouts of chard, carrots and broccoli.
Though this was not planned, one of our students noticed that our discussions on the fall season coincided with our study of the letter ‘F’ as part of our Letter of the Week literacy program.
One of our favorite fall activities involves collecting leaves and other objects that have fallen from the trees and other plants. We talk about our discoveries and then incorporate them into art projects. Here are some fairy looms we constructed to display our found items (along with some other art materials we ‘found’ in the school!).
We also made several rubbings. We have some templates of birds, insects and flowers to use for rubbings, but we also incorporated the leaves and pieces of barks into our art projects. Before long we were scavenging the entire school, inside and out, looking for textures with which to make rubbings. This sort of activity changes how you look at your environment, heightening your awareness of the textures around you. We took rubbings of the trees, the wood on our porch, the tables outside, the bricks, the chairs and other surfaces.
These window pictures were made with contact paper and tissue paper. This project provided an opportunity to discuss the color changes in some leaves and why this happens in the fall.
We are planning a trip to a nearby state park for some extended hiking expeditions. The fall is such a wonderful time for experiencing the outdoors and connecting with nature.
Having supported emerging readers for well over a decade, I can say that one of the very best ways to help young people read is to read to and with them.
At Progress School, we do not force students to read or pressure them to attain specific levels of fluency at set points. Instead we focus on fostering a love of reading, supported by fun activities designed to develop all the skills people need to be able to read independently.
Most schools have a story time or some sort of reading time on most days. At Progress School we read books throughout the day, every day. Occasionally we develop something of an obsession with a particular book. For a couple of weeks it was The Stinky Cheese Man and Other Fairly Stupid Tales, written by Jon Scieszka and illustrated by Lane Smith.
Scieszka’s witty humor entertains children and adults alike. His collection of revised fairy tales include wacky versions of Chicken Little, The Gingerbread Man and Little Red Riding Hood. The students LOVED them, the sillier the better. They asked the teachers to read and reread the stories. They read parts of the stories to each other. Then they took turns checking out the book so that they could read the stories to their families and friends outside of school.
We compared Scieszka’s versions with the traditional stories. Then we explored other traditional fairy tales and discussed how we could make our own versions. This tied in wonderfully to the students’ interest in writing and performing plays. Using familiar fairy tales as starting points, we worked in our own twists to create new pieces. Through the process of writing and rehearsing, the students are presented with a fun opportunity to practice reading and develop fluency.
It is easily one of our favorite times of year. Between the costumes and the candy, Halloween really resonates with people of all ages, but especially young children. We use the holiday to focus on many of the topics associated with Halloween: cats, bats, skeletons, pumpkins, etc.
When asked which country they would like to study next, the students selected Germany. Since some of the teachers have traveled to Germany and studied it’s language and culture, we were excited to delve into this wonderful place, rich with fascinating geography, history and of course, the food!
The students regularly open restaurants during their play, often 2 or more times a week. We make money, menus and seating areas to accommodate each restaurant and take turns being the customer, wait person and cook (I like to be the health inspector). Studying Germany inspired us to open a German restaurant, complete with sauerkraut and black forest cake. We discussed different currencies, including the US dollar, the euro, and the former German money, the mark.
Knowing already that Germany is home to many of the world’s greatest castles, the students decided they wanted to construct a model of a castle, complete with towers, a castle wall, and even a moat. Our books contained pictures, diagrams and facts about castles. As fans of the Magic School Bus books, we really enjoyed reading about Ms. Frizzle’s adventures in a medieval castle.
This tourism site proved to be a great resource for studying German castles. One of our favorites was Neuschwanstein Castle, famous for its fairy tale spires and inspiration for the Disney castles.
We learned about all the features we wanted our castle to have: towers, turrets, portcullis, moat, well, etc. Our castle project will be an ongoing project, but here is what we have so far:
We spent time reading and acting out German fairy tales, such as Little Red Riding Hood. We enjoyed making puppets. Then we moved on to making our own little stories and plays. Steve and the students composed and performed several short plays, some of which tapped into the old tales.
We will certainly revisit Germany in our future studies.